Tuesday, May 19, 2020

Biography of Rubén Blades

Rubà ©n Blades Bellido de Luna (born July 16, 1948) is a Panamanian singer/songwriter, actor, activist, and politician. He was a key figure in popularizing New York-based salsa music in the 1970s, with socially conscious lyrics that commented on poverty and violence in Latino communities and U.S. imperialism in Latin America. However, unlike most musicians, Blades has been able to toggle between multiple careers in his life, including serving as Minister of Tourism in Panama. Fast Facts: Rubà ©n Blades Known For:  Salsa singer/songwriter, actor, Panamanian politicianBorn:  July 16, 1948 in Panama City, PanamaParents:  Rubà ©n Darà ­o Blades, Sr., Anoland Dà ­az (original surname Bellido de Luna)Spouse:  Luba MasonChildren: Joseph VerneEducation: Masters Degree in International Law, Harvard Graduate Law School (1985); Bachelors Degree in Law and Political Science, University of Panama (1974)Awards and Honors: 17 Grammys (9 U.S. Grammys, 8 Latin Grammys); Honorary Doctorate degrees from University of California, Berkeley; Lehman College; and the Berklee College of Music Early Life and Education Rubà ©n Blades was born in Panama City to a Cuban mother, musician Anoland Dà ­az (original surname Bellido de Luna), and a Colombian father, Rubà ©n Darà ­o Blades, Sr., an athlete and percussionist. He earned a bachelors degree from the University of Panama in law and political science in 1974. In 1973 Blades parents had moved to Miami because Rubà ©n, Sr. had been accused by General Manuel Noriega, then chief of military intelligence under President Omar Torrijos, of working for the CIA. The following year, after graduating from the University of Panama, Rubà ©n, Jr. followed his family to the U.S., but headed not to Miami, but to New York to try and break into the salsa scene. He began working in the mailroom at Fania Records, where he would eventually become one of the labels major recording artists. He took a break from his musical career in the early 1980s to pursue a Masters Degree in International Law from Harvard University, which he earned in 1985. Rubà ©n Blades and Willie Colon in the 1970s. Michael Ochs Archives / Getty Images Cultural Impact Blades has had a significant impact on Latino music and culture writ large, particularly with regards to his recordings with Fania Records and other leading salsa musicians of the 1970s, like Willie Colà ³n. Their joint album Siembra is the best-selling salsa album in history, with over 25 million copies sold. He is widely known as the intellectual of salsa music, with lyrics that reference Latin American literature and issue bold social critiques on a range of issues affecting Latinos. Regarding his desire to make more explicitly political music during his time with Fania, he recently stated, â€Å"It didn’t make me popular in the industry, where you aren’t supposed to antagonize people, you are supposed to smile and be nice in order to sell records. But I never bought into that.† Ruben Blades with their Grammy Awards for Latin Pop at the 2000 Grammy Awards held in Los Angeles, CA.   Scott Gries / Getty Images As an actor, Blades has also had a long and fruitful career, which began in 1983 with the film The Last Fight and most recently included a role on the TV show Fear the Walking Dead. He has often turned down roles that reinforced stereotypes about Latinos. When offered a role as a drug dealer in the hit 1980s show Miami Vice, he rejected the offer, stating: â€Å"When are we going to stop playing the drug addict, the pimp and the whore?...I could never do that stuff. I’d rather kill myself first†. He continued, regarding the scripts he continued to receive: â€Å"In half, they want me to play a Colombian coke dealer. In the other half, they want me to play a Cuban coke dealer. Doesn’t anyone want me to play a lawyer?† Politics and Activism Blades is well-known for his left-leaning political orientation, particularly his critiques of U.S. imperialism and intervention into Latin America, which have often made their way into his music. His 1980 recording Tiburà ³n, for example, was an allegorical critique of American imperialism, and Ollies Doo-Wop (1988) addressed the Iran-Contra scandal that funded the U.S.-backed war against the socialist Sandinista government in Nicaragua. However, he has also been critical of leftist authoritarian governments or Marxist Leninist dictatorships, as he referred to the governments in Cuba and Venezuela. Musicians Residente (R) of Calle 13 and Ruben Blades perform onstage at the 10th Annual Latin GRAMMY Awards held at the Mandalay Bay Events Center on November 5, 2009 in Las Vegas, Nevada. Michael Caulfield / Getty Images Blades political activism stems from his experience as a young Panamanian in the 1960s who saw Americans living in the Canal Zone disrespecting Panamas sovereignty and treating the country as an extension of the U.S. He began to learn about racial segregation in the U.S. and its historic treatment of Native Americans, which contributed to his emerging political consciousness. U.S. foreign policy in Central America in the 1970s and 80s—particularly its role in the civil wars in El Salvador, Nicaragua, and Guatemala—was also an issue that affected Blades deeply. The U.S. invasion of Panama in 1989 to depose Manuel Noriega was a major reason Blades returned to Panama in 1993 to run for president. He founded a political party, Papa Egorà ³ (meaning Mother Earth in the Embera language of Panamas indigenous population), and ran for president in 1994, coming in third place out of seven candidates, with 18% of the vote. He was later asked to join the government of Martà ­n Torrijos, and served as the Minister of Tourism from 2004 to 2009, an important post since tourism is the countrys main economic driver. He has spoken about not wanting to sacrifice Panamas natural environment in exchange for foreign investment, and the fact that he stressed the development of small-scale eco-tourism and cultural tourism over large-scale tourist amenities. There has been speculation for years about whether Blades will run for president again in Panama, but thus far he has not made an announcement to that effect. Writing Blades publishes a fair amount of opinion writing on his website, mostly related to the political situations in various Latin American countries, with a focus on Panama and Venezuela. Sources Rubenblades.com. http://rubenblades.com/, accessed June 1, 2019. Shaw, Lauren. Interview with Rubà ©n Blades. In Song and Social Change in Latin America, edited by Lauren Shaw. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2013.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Theme Of Fire In Fahrenheit 451 - 1246 Words

The world of Fahrenheit 451 is not a place that one may want to live. It is a dystopian world. With authoritative control and absolutely no individual freedom, the author Ray Bradbury really set out to emphasize not only the need for literature/knowledge but also the power technology holds in his envisioned future. The novel being titled Fahrenheit 451 one might have thoughts of heat or burning or fire. Whether fire is being used as a weapon of destruction or a way to cleanse the impurity in the world, fire seems to be a recurring theme in this futuristic setting. Fire or the symbolism of fire carries the story throughout the novel. The whole story is revolved around not only the burning of books, but also knowledge, history, and†¦show more content†¦Thrusting himself into an identity crisis because he realizes his own identity is being puppeteered by others. During the first parts of the novel the audience only saw Montag as a shell of a person with no real depth but when he finally starts to process the people and events around him, he really begins to shine as a character. Montag starts to fear fire and its corrupt uses. In this dystopian world, society passes judgement through fire that Montag himself carries out and he begins to have inner conflict throughout the novel. During the end of Fahrenheit 451 Montag comes across â€Å"book people†, scholars led by Granger. Montag sees their bonfire of sorts warming them in the cold. â€Å"The small motion, the white and red color, a strange fire because it meant a different thin g to him. It was not burning, it was warming,† (pg. 139). He sees the fire not hurt these men—as he has grown accustomed to—but helping them acting as a hearth that the come close to for comfort and protection. He starts to realize that fire has a duality and the way it is handled is for the person to decide. Similarly, Montag understands that as long as he is willing he has the power to control his identity, both the destructive and creative sides to it. In a similar fashion Montag, in still forming his individuality, both destructive and creative aspectsShow MoreRelatedThe Theme Of Fire In Fahrenheit 4511555 Words   |  7 Pageswas a pleasure to burn. It was a special pleasure to see things eaten, to see things blackened and changed† (Bradbury 1). As a force of nature, fire demolishes objects uncontrollably once set free. Eating each individual object slowly, savouring the process of destruction. In Ray Bradbury’s dystopian novel, Fahrenheit 451, Montag is the liberator of fire, using it to burn books, to watch them catch aflame and flutter in the air until they turn into a pile of black ash. As a fireman, Montag relishesRead MoreTheme Of Fire In Fahrenheit 451934 Words   |  4 PagesFire, the symbol of warmth, destruction, and renewal, is a dominant image in the novel Fahrenheit 451 by Ray Bradbury. Guy Montag, the protagonist, lives in a grim, futuristic United States where people have given up books and knowledge in general for entertainment and instant gratification. The standard use of fire to warm and heat has been replaced to be used for destruction and entertainment. Montag’s job as a fireman clearly shows this, as he is required to burn books and houses. Montag’s understandingRead MoreEssay on Fahrenheit 451, by Ray Bradbury972 Words   |  4 PagesIn Fahrenheit 451 by Ray Bradbury, irony is used to convey information and it contributes to the overall theme of the novel. Written during the era of M cCarthyism, Fahrenheit 451 is about a society where books are illegal. This society believes that being intellectual is bad and that a lot of things that are easily accessible today should be censored. The overall message of the book is that censorship is not beneficial to society, and that it could cause great harm to one’s intelligence and socialRead MoreReview of Ray Bradburys Fahrenheit 451 Essay1496 Words   |  6 PagesReview of Ray Bradburys Fahrenheit 451 In Ray Bradburys novel Fahrenheit 451, the author utilizes the luxuries of life in America today, in addition to various occupations Read MoreFahrenheit 451 And V For Vendetta, By Ray Bradbury1457 Words   |  6 PagesIn the novel Fahrenheit 451 written by Ray Bradbury and the film V for Vendetta by James McTeigue, there are a different range of features of their text type which explore the common theme of individuality against oppression. A fascist government occupies London after a world war in V for Vendetta. Where V uses terrorist tactics to fight the dictators, after saving Evey from the secret police, he now discovers an ally in the battle against England’s corrupt government. Fahrenheit 451, set in the futuristicRead MoreFigurative Language In Fahrenheit 451 By Ray Bradbury702 Words   |  3 Pages â€Å"Don’t face a problem, burn it.† (Bradbury 115). This is a quote from the book, Fahrenheit 451 by Ray Bradbury. Fahrenheit 451 follows Montag’s journey after he begins to realize the truth about books. The overall theme is censorship and more importantly the result of it. In the beginning of the novel, Ray Bradbury focuses on figurative language to convey his theme. Throughout the first part, Bradbury uses many forms of figurative language such similes, metaphors, and irony. One example ofRead MoreFahrenheit 451 Essay1581 Words   |  7 PagesViolence Is Frequently Relevant To the Society in Fahrenheit 451 Fahrenheit 451 is a novel written by Ray Bradbury. In Bradbury’s futuristic novel, violence is prevalently revealed in the society. Violence in society is aggression, cruelty, rough or injurious physical actions and treatment towards the citizens and civilization in the society, where everyone has the same theory and beliefs on the way one should act. In Fahrenheit 451, everyone is careless and relatively violent with the exceptionRead MoreFahrenheit 451: the Firemen851 Words   |  4 PagesRay Bradbury’s Fahrenheit 451 staunchly contrasts these other writings; rather than presenting some omniscient tale admonishing its audience of the dangers of government hierarchy, Bradbury uses satire to criticize primarily emerging trends in society, providing an account that deems them equally as harrowing and dangerous as some authoritarian government, although he does include a limited number of strands involving an anti-government theme. This unique aspect of Fahrenheit 451 h as earned the attentionRead MoreFahrenheit 451 Vs. 1984970 Words   |  4 PagesFahrenheit 451 vs. 1984 Ray Bradbury and George Orwell share a very similar theme in their two novels, Fahrenheit 451 and 1984. Winston Smith and Guy Montag work within an authoritarian organization, in which, they have opposing views of the authority. The novels are placed in a dystopian setting that the authority believes is a utopia. The dystopian fictions both have very similar predictions of the future. The predictions from these novels have not happened. However, it could be a short matterRead MoreEssay on Fahrenheit 451 Sybolism of Fire646 Words   |  3 PagesThe Symbolism of Fire Fahrenheit 451 by Ray Bradbury, is a novel filled with many symbols. The symbolism used in this novel varies from different animals to things in nature. One of the biggest symbols throughout the novel is fire. Fire has multiple meanings in Fahrenheit 451, and is usually symbolized as something to be feared. Throughout the novel, fire is something that people do not want, even though it can be so much more than a bad thing. Fire can represent knowledge and awareness, rebirth

Parts of Speech Essay Thesis Example For Students

Parts of Speech Essay Thesis Why? Under what conditions? To what degree? Example: a well argued essay. 3. Article precedes a noun phrase and is either definite (the) or indefinite (a/an) in repertory. Example: An (indefinite article) argumentative (adjective) essay that is persuasive is the (definite article) the (definite article) writers mark of success. 4. Conjunction- a conjunction joins words, phrases, or clauses and indicates the relationship between the elements joined. Example: An essay can be either argumentative or descriptive but not both. 5. Noun a noun is an animate or inanimate object or concept. Example: an essay (noun) 6. Preposition -a pronoun is a word placed before a noun or pronoun to form a phrase modifying another word in the sentence. Example: The road to hell is usually paved with DOD intentions. 7, pronoun- a pronoun is a word used for a noun, and usually substitutes for a specific noun. As look back now, the approach to teaching the basic patterns of the English language, such as these key parts of speech, have never been too effective. These parts of speech constantly keep being brought up in my daily elite yet somewhere along the lines, we get caught up in simply knowing the parts of speech rather than being able to use them effectively on our pieces of written work. All of these great facts have no purpose if we are unable to use them in our daily lives. Reminiscing back to this seemingly simple concept really does tress how important proper grammar and knowing how to make the eight parts of speech useful truly is. As a student entering the world of learning again, the importance of being a good writer and being well-spoken increasingly influences my life. To be a good writer is one thing, to honestly know what youre trying to portray through your work is a completely different idea on its own. Being knowledgeable about the parts Of speech and how they can be used in many facets Of language is fantastic. Naming the parts of speech in isolation does not bring focus to how important these words can be, but knowing how to effectively use them in writing is What truly is important. These eight concepts of writing came up all throughout the early years of my educational career and theyre importance is brewing back up once again in my life.

Wednesday, April 22, 2020

U OF T PROFESSORS DEVISE BETTER WAY TO TEST SIGHT IN BABIES In A Darke

U OF T PROFESSORS DEVISE BETTER WAY TO TEST SIGHT IN BABIES In a darkened room at Toronto's Hospital for Sick Children, a baby, its head dotted with electrodes, sits in its mother's lap and watches flashing black and white checkerboards and stripes on a television screen. Soon after the test, doctors will know if the child can see and how well it can see. The testing procedure, which involves measuring brain wave activity prompted by visual stimuli (also called visual evoked potentials or VEP's) has been perfected by Drs. Barry Skarf of the Department of Ophthalmology and Moshe Eizenman of U of T's Institute Their procedure is more accurate than tests used elsewhere because Eizenman has developed a novel, real-time computer program to extract brain wave responses from extremely small patterns (similar in size to the bottom line of a standard eye test) which produce much more reliable results. Until now, doctors would have to extrapolate th e baby's ability to see small stimuli from test results using large stimuli. "In Effect, Dr. Eizenman has developed a way of looking at brain waves that is more sensitive than methods previously available, " says Skarf. At the HSC, VEP's are used in a number of clinical applications: to determine whether a visual problem is cognitive; to assess whether babies who don't appear to see well will see better in the future; to determine a course of treatment for such problems in which one eye turns in or is weaker than the other eye. The second aspect of the researchers' work involves the development of a stimulator for stereopsis, or binocular vision, which is the fusing of images from both eyes into one picture that has depth. "The problem with testing binocular vision, " explains Skarf, "is that most stimuli presented to young children have other cues that can be seen with one eye alone. We wanted to devise stimuli that can only be seen by b oth eyes together and would produce specific brain waves to the stimuli." Based on a binocular stimulus invented by an American researcher, Eizenman had developed a stimulus that generates a pattern on a tv screen which looks like distortion (a snow storm) when viewed with only one eye, but when viewed through special glasses with both eyes emits a distinctive three- dimensional pattern. Skarf and Eizenman are now testing binocular VEP's on young children. They are examining children with normal sight and evaluating eye function in children with visual disorders. This is the first test of binocular vision to be carried out with large numbers. "Using this binocular stimulus with the very sensitive detector system for analyzing responses, we hope to have a system which will allow us to test binocular vision in young babies, quickly and easily, and to measure responses in a better way than before." In addition to this clinical research, Skarf now wants to direct his attention to some basic research questions about the development of vision. "We are interested in more than just developing tools. We want to know how binocular vision develops and which factors interfere with development. We want to find out what wheels turn in the brain to produce lazy eyes and impaired binocular vision." Skarf and Eizenman receive funding from the Medical Research Council of Canada. CONTACT: Barry Skarf (416)598-6133 Moshe Eizenman (416)978-5523

Monday, March 16, 2020

Study for Final Essay Example

Study for Final Essay Example Study for Final Essay Study for Final Essay 1. Under which of the following circumstances will the seller pay the whole of an excise (per unit) tax? a)when the tax is collected from the buyer b)when the supply curve has a zero elasticity c)when the demand curve has a zero elasticity d)when the tax is collected from the seller The following three questions refer to the accompanying diagram of a competitive market. Refer to Figure 3 above. A per unit tax is imposed on consumers. The initial price and quantity are P0 and Q0, respectively. After the tax is imposed, the equilibrium quantity is Q1, firms receive the price Ps, and consumers pay the price Pd. . Area C + D + F + G is a)the tax revenue collected by the government b)the total value that consumers receive from their purchases c)the fall in producers surplus d)the deadweight loss due to the tax 3. Refer to Figure 3 above. Which is the deadweight loss from the imposition of the tax? a)E b)E + H c)H d)J e)E + H + J 4. In the perfectly competitive firm a)the demand curve appe ars to be horizontal b)the supply curve appears to be horizontal c)the supply curve is the MC curve above average variable costs d)the supply curve is the MC curve above average fixed costs e)a and c of the above . For a firm in short run perfectly competitive equilibrium a)P=MC b)AR=MC c)AR=MR d)all of the above e)a and b of the above 6. In short run perfectly competitive equilibrium, profits for the typical firm are given by (* indicate the value at the firm’s profit maximizing quantity) a)(P*-MC*)q* b)(P*-AC*)q* c)(MR*-AC*)q* d)(MC*-AC*)q* e)all but a above 7. A firm that is in short run competitive equilibrium and for whom PAVC a)will produce a zero output b)will leave the industry c)will produce the profit maximizing output d)a and c of the above e)none of the above 8. When a simple monopolist – no price discrimination chooses to sell an additional unit of a good or service a)marginal revenue will be equal to the going market price b)it will have to lower its price on the additional unit and on all other units c)marginal revenue will always be negative d)marginal revenue will be less than the price e)b and d QuantityPriceTotal RevenueAverage RevenueMarginal Revenue 135 35 2 6432 29 329 4 17 523 11 6120 717 -1 8 -7 9 9911-13 9. If the monopolist wants to maximize its revenue, how many units of its product should it sell? a)4 b)5 c)6 d)8 10. Assume this monopolists marginal cost is constant at $11. What quantity of output (Q) will it produce and what price (P) will it charge? a)Q = 4, P = $27 b)Q = 4, P = $25 c)Q = 5, P = $23 d)Q = 7, P = $17 Suppose that the industry price of this product is $12 in a competitive industry. Every firm in the industry has fixed costs of $10 and has the following marginal cost s: Quantity Marginal Cost 1 $4 2 6 3 8 4 10 5 12 11. How many units does a firm produce? a)2 b)3 c)4 d)5 e)Not enough information 12. How much profit does the firm earn? a)2 b)6 c)8 d)10 e)Not enough information

Saturday, February 29, 2020

American Television In The 1950s And 1960s

American Television In The 1950s And 1960s The televisual representation of black people had been a highly contested phenomenon since the television broadcast of ‘Amos ‘n’ Andy’ in June 1951. It is believed that ‘Amos ‘n’ Andy’ defined for the first time the side that television was to take in the postwar to represent Black people in America. In Amos ‘n’ Andy, Freeman Gosden and Charles Correll created and fixed an image of blackness, black people believed, which made racist Americans fight against them more and more. The program lasted just two years and was cancelled in the midst of growing protest by the black community in 1953. Because ‘The Jeffersons ‘ not only was the first TV programs which featured African-Americans in leading roles since the cancellation of the infamous ‘Amos ‘n’ Andy’ show in 1953, but also the first television program to feature black couples. Because it was the first time television showed a ric h, successful African American family, many people believed that the appearance of ‘The Jeffersons ‘was the first positive image of a new role model of Black African American families on television. However, John D.H.   [ 1 ]   pointed out that this television show may have been just ‘a typical of American television fare’ because ‘media image of American of African descent have ranged from the blatantly to the latently racist’. ‘Father knows best’ was, the first white family television sitcom and popular around 1950s-1960s. Therefore, I would like to use both ‘The Jefferson’ and ‘father knows best’ as examples to examine how ‘race’ was constructed by American televisual representation. Just a few years after the Second World War, how to attain and live the American dream became one of the most prominent themes of the 1950s .Therefore, for helping Americans rebuild their dream, television p rogram in 1950s was made as a creation of American dream rather than a reflection of society.   [ 2 ]   The television producers believed when people conformed to the ideal of beneficial families bring those family audiences stand up to the same level and made people more enjoy the sitcom and their life.   [ 3 ]   According to Census, in 1950, â€Å"families with both the head and his wife present,† were apparently the norm, accounting for 87.1%. A non-couple household was counted for 3.6%. The figure of independent female household just was 9.3%. it mean, during that period, most Americans demanded to see a family television shows which ‘defined a household in patriarchal and nuclear terms, with the centre assumed to be a male breadwinner heading a household of his dependent wife and children’. Therefore by adopting that idea, in ‘Father knows best’s world Andersons family has an upper-class, white-collar fathers, a stay-at-home wives, and t wo or three children whom lived in suburban. The television show offered viewers a comforting unified vision of the American family. In most episodes of ‘Father knows best’ the stories were all about how the father helped the family find out one or two beneficial social formations from their everyday life. Moreover, by showing a special episode ‘the importance of a strong American democracy’ in ‘school, churched, civic organization ‘, United State Treasury Department promoted U.S. Saving Bones. Given the sitcom show title â€Å"father who knows best,† the television producers hoped that the way of lived in â€Å"father who knows best† would made the majority of Americans understood what real meaning of â€Å"beneficial family† was.

Thursday, February 13, 2020

Business Ethic and Corporate Social Responsibility Essay

Business Ethic and Corporate Social Responsibility - Essay Example Oil is a major contributor to greenhouse gases which results in climate change. The company is on a drive to become more socially responsible by not only reducing its carbon footprints but by improving the safety of its work environment and is employees. In so doing it seeks to reduce the number of accidents and fatalities as well as the number of oil spills, blowouts and flarings at its operations globally. Shell has faced a lot of criticisms from the communities in which it operates and non-governmental organizations (NGO’s) that are concerned about the companies safety practices, the environment and human rights. The company is currently working with communities, its partners and NGO’s in order to deal with potential impacts and also to share the benefits that derive from operations and projects. Shell’s Display of its Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) According to the company’s CEO Vosser (2010, qtd. in Shell 2010), strong principles as well as the development of trust are fundamental to shells approach and the respect for human rights is deeply entrenched in the company’s General Business Principles which it proudly boasts as having being developed since 1976. Vosser (2010, qtd in Shell 2010) also reveals that the company has adopted transparency as a way of dealing with some of its problems at its operations in Nigeria which has been plagued by operational spills, spills arising from sabotage and spills arising from the theft of fuel. This allows it to keep track of spills in order to determine the main cause. With respect to safety, the company has signed up with the UN Global Compact LEAD which seeks to reinforce commitment by businesses to the principles of Global Compact. Shell has been a member of this group since 2000. The company’s safety measures has been heightened as a result of the BP Deepwater Ho rizon incident in the Gulf of Mexico which dominated the news all over the world in 2010 and the oil spill that resulted. Shell believes that it has the necessary skills and technical expertise to avert such a situation in its operations based on its stringent operating standards which it applies globally. This is a demonstration of its ability to operate in a socially responsible manner despite the diversity of challenges the company faces. Shell’s goal is zero fatality and zero accidents (Shell 2010). In terms of safety in its deepwater operations the company ensures that the persons employed in this area of its operations are properly trained and are competent to handle the requirements of the job. Shell’s focus on the environment lies in some key areas, including CO2, flaring, spills, and the company’s use of water. The company has invested in technology that will lead to more energy efficient refineries and chemical plants. To this end the company has devel oped carbon capture and storage technology to effectively reduce carbon emissions. The company is working assiduously to reduce gas flarings in Nigeria; one of its locations in which it seeks to tackle environmental problems head on. In order to assist in the improvement of standards and practices that may lead to environmental sustainability the company is working with some leading environmental organisations in the quest to adhere to proper environmental management of the energy sector. In addition to providing jobs and training for its employees, Shell also shares the benefits of its operations with the communities in which it operates by providing contracts for goods and services and by